The basic components that make up the architecture of OpenStack are:Compute (Nova)Compute is one of the most important and mandatory components of OpenStack. The hardware must provide enough network connectivity and storage capacity to meet minimum user requirements, but the storage and networking components primarily load data sets to the computational cluster and do not require consistent performance. A central database team manages the SQL database server in each cell in an active/passive configuration with a NetApp storage backend. At its most basic concept, Graffiti's intent is to enable better metadata collaboration across services and projects for OpenStack users. If you plan too conservatively, you might experience unexpected over-subscription of the cloud. Underclouds contain the core components sys admins need to set up and manage end users' OpenStack environments, known as overclouds. It is basically a virtualization hypervisor. These SLA requirements include use of data encryption. Storage, Orchestration, and Telemetry services. Network-Focused Architecture Considerations, Section 1.2.2, “OpenStack Object Storage (swift)”, Section 1.2.1, “OpenStack Block Storage (cinder)”, Shared application development environment, Environment requiring scale-out additions instead of than scale-up additions, Between 120 and 140 installations of Nginx and Tomcat, each with 2 vCPUs and 4 GB of RAM. You can also use Object Storage to move static web content from OpenStack Object Storage containers or to back up images that are managed by OpenStack Image. You can also use QoS for mixed workloads to prevent low-priority, high-bandwidth applications such as backup services, video conferencing, or file sharing, from blocking bandwidth that is needed for the continued operation of other workloads. OpenStack offers both Block Storage (cinder) and Object Storage (swift). Power and cooling. The optional Object Storage node contain the disks that the Big-data analytics using Hadoop or other distributed data stores, Continuous integration or continuous deployment (CI/CD), Signal processing for network function virtualization (NFV). through a variety of complementary services. Although a compute-focused cloud does not usually require major data I/O to and from storage, storage performance is still an important factor to consider. various Networking agents, and the Dashboard. minimum of one network interface. This option lacks support for self-service (private) networks, layer-3 Workloads in a compute-focused OpenStack cloud generally do not require persistent block storage, except some uses of Hadoop with HDFS. Other factors that affect content deliver and performance include network throughput of backend systems, resource locations, WAN architecture, and cache methodology. Cloud storage commonly refers to a hosted object storage service. These permutations of perspectives drive a paucity of aligned user stories to share with the OpenStack and StarlingX communities. virtual networks to physical networks using NAT. and Additionally, this option provides the foundation for for layer-3 (routing) services. z/VM's focus is on enabling OpenStack APIs, not providing an end-user GUI. If you have any questions, please contact customer service. Network configuration affects latency, bandwidth, and distribution of instances. www.openstack.org OpenStack Workload Reference Architecture: Web Applications 6 Load balancing Load balancing can be based on round robin, least connections, or random. OpenStack Networking Guide for Rocky, You can deploy more than two object storage nodes. Examples include VPNs, MPLS private networks, and GRE tunnels. In this example, Ceph provides a Swift-compatible REST interface, as well as block-level storage from a distributed storage cluster. computing experts from around the world contribute to the project. By avoiding input-output (IO) overhead, you can significantly enhance workload performance. Erasure coded pools are recommended to maximize the amount of usable space. The network must scale out to meet user demand and to deliver web pages with minimum latency. 10 GbE horizontally scalable spine-leaf backend storage and front-end network, * 5 storage servers for caching layer 24x1 TB SSD, * 10 storage servers with 12x4 TB disks for each server, which equals 480 TB total space with approximately 160 TB of usable space after 3 replicas. For more information on production architectures for Pike, see the It explains core concepts, cloud architecture design requirements, and the design criteria of key components and services in an OpenStack cloud. In the last article ,we have seen the history of private cloud softwares and Openstack. OpenStack provides an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) solution This chapter contains references to architecture examples of Red Hat OpenStack Platform deployments. Monitoring and reporting for other OpenStack services. The site.pp.example manifest captures the user-modifiable components and defines the various parameters that must be set to configure the OpenStack cluster, including the Puppet Master and Cobbler setup on the build server. Because this service operates primarily as a backup service, most of the traffic moves southbound into the environment. North-south traffic consists of data that moves in and out of the cloud. Deployments can also be based on deployed infrastructure. Consider the following factors when you design your storage hardware: In addition to basic network considerations described in Chapter 2, Networking In-Depth, consider the following factors: Section 4.4.1, “Storage-Focused Architecture Types”, Section 4.4.4, “Storage-Focused Architecture Considerations”. to automate deployment and management of the production environment. For more information on production architectures for Queens, see the Database for all OpenStack components. The company has predictable load requirements, but requires scaling to cope with nightly increases in demand. A Block Diagram showing OpenStack Architecture. infrastructure to create a virtual network to exactly match the The project aims for simple The connectivity must satisfy the storage solution requirements. You can build a storage array using commodity hardware with Open Source software, but you might need specialized expertise to deploy it. This configuration maximizes available bandwidth usage. Advanced OpenStack Networking Concepts, 2.4.2. This can also include For example, disabling HTT can help intense computing environments. Essentially, it routes VDI systems are sensitive to network congestion, latency, and jitter. In the high performance analytics example, the inline SSD cache layer accelerates the REST interface. You must protect data both in transit and at rest. The following cloud-backup application workload has two specific behaviors that impact the network. An integrated management console, or other dashboards that visualize SNMP data, helps to discover and resolve issues with the storage cluster. You can also use HAProxy. This diagram offers a high­level overview of OpenStack and the components it contains. Use solid-state drive (SSD) disks to minimize instance storage latency, reduce CPU delays, and improve performance. Database architectures benefit from high performance storage backends. This system can provide additional performance capabilities. In this architecture example, the database I/O requirements are high and demand storage from a fast SSD pool. Similar to VoIP, users of these system notice network performance problems even at low levels. Although more expensive, you can also consider higher density switches as you should not design the network beyond functional requirements. The workload also impacta the effectiveness of overlay networks. minimum proof-of-concept for the purpose of learning about OpenStack. Section 4.4.3, “High-Performance Database Architecture”. The compute node also Hardware load balancers to distribute workloads or off-load certain functions, External devices to implement dynamic routing. To extend a tunnel beyond the OpenStack regions to another region or to an external system, implement the tunnel outside OpenStack or use a tunnel-management system to map the tunnel or the overlay to an external tunnel. Section 4.3, “Compute-Focused Architecture”. virtual machine or instance. In a storage-focused architecture, instance density and CPU/RAM over-subscription are lower. They should only be used for testing, and should not be deployed in a production environment. As in the previous case, this architecture supports a combination of OpenStack and Kubernetes services that can be distributed in the environment to fulfill all the required functionality for each site. Object Storage service uses for storing accounts, containers, and Monitoring of advanced storage performance data to ensure that storage systems are performing as expected. For storage, use a scaled-out solution with directly-attached storage in the servers. When a user uploads and stores content, that content moves southbound into the OpenStack environment. If your company has an existing Red Hat account, your organization administrator can grant you access. Therefore, you must plan for typical usage and for sudden spikes in resource demand. OpenStack Reference Architecture For 100, 300 and 500 Nodes¶. Let’s talk about Openstack architecture and Components . If one site becomes unavailable, additional sites can serve the increased load until the original site returns to service. Hardware-based load balancing cluster for a large-scale Web application. The following table lists the requirements for each compute center to add: This architecture uses cells for segregation of compute resources and for transparent scaling between different data centers. However, other versions of NAT might be running elsewhere. Manages instance templates to use when scaling out and during traffic bursts. Because this workload includes an externally-facing service and an internally-replicating application, it requires north-south and east-west traffic considerations. It is important to select network hardware that supports the required port count, port speed, and port density, and that also allows future growth when workload demands increase. The following image is an example of a multiple-network architecture in a multinode OpenStack configuration. The OpenStack user can create virtual networks without the knowledge Network-Focused Architecture Types, 4.5.2. Run a load balancer in OpenStack as an instance or externally as a service. This platform decreases host density and increases rack count. MariaDB server instances store data on shared enterprise storage, such as NetApp or Solidfire. The following diagram shows an OpenStack store with a high-performance requirement. Rackspace Cloud Computing. This website uses cookies and other tracking technology to analyse traffic, personalise ads and learn how we can improve the experience for our visitors and customers. Network connectivity and storage capacity are less critical to this architecture. Use this service to monitor instance usage and adjust project quotas. In addition to basic design considerations described in Chapter 3, Design and compute node design considerations described in Section 3.2, “Compute Resources”, the following items should be considered for a compute-intensive architecture. Example cloud storage applications include: For more information about OpenStack storage services, see Section 1.2.2, “OpenStack Object Storage (swift)” and Section 1.2.1, “OpenStack Block Storage (cinder)”. For example, you can replace the CPU with a CPU with more cores, or increase the RAM of the server. Load Balancing-as-a-Service (LBaaS), 4.4.1. operates instances. If application network connections are small, short lived, or bursty, running a dynamic overlay can generate as much bandwidth as the packets the network carries. Clouds used for the management and collection of big data create significant demand on network resources. Storage and Shared File System services provision for instances. The OpenStack project has a couple of deployment projects with It is mostly deployed as infrastructure as a Service(IAaaS) where virtual servers and other resources are made available to customers. HA environments are dependent on network sizing that maintains replication of data between sites. OpenStack Object Storage to serve static objects, such as images. Basic authentication and authorization for users and tenants. Many readers of these articles have a keen interest in IBM, so it's worth highlighting how important OpenStack is to the company. All architecture examples in this guide assume that you deploy OpenStack Platform on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2 with the KVM hypervisor. openstack Architecture and components overview. integration. The current environment does not have the flexibility to align with the company goal of running an open-source API environment. In this architecture example, the database I/O requirements are high and demand storage from a fast SSD pool. This architecture type is not typically storage-intensive or network-intensive, and serves customers that require the power of Compute resources. and The environment then copies the results or the artifacts from each instance to long-term storage before it terminates the instances. KVM hypervisor. • OpenStack Architecture An OpenStack® based cloud is now a common need by many organizations and Dell Technologies with Red Hat have worked together to build a jointly engineered and validated architecture that details software, hardware, and integration points of all solution components. Monitoring of storage resources, such as available storage, memory, and CPU. Large-Scale Web-Application Architecture, 4.5.4. For example, ImagePropertiesFilter provides special handling based on the operating system that the guest runs, for example Linux or Windows. Architecture Design Guide, This general-purpose architecture can run up to 140 web instances, and the small number of MariaDB instances requires 292 vCPUs and 584 GB RAM. The OpenStack user requires more information about the underlying network Running performance tests of local workloads with and without HTT can help determine which option is more appropriate for a particular case. The customizations allow certain workloads to route to a specific data center or to all data centers based on cell RAM availability. Each service offers an A compute-focused cloud supports CPU-intensive workloads such as data computation or encryption and decryption, RAM-intensive workloads such as in-memory caching or database servers, or both. The application requires an SSL connection to secure data and must not lose connection to individual servers. The cloud uses a compute cell for each of the two original data centers and will create a new compute cell whenever you add a new data center. The architecture for this example includes three controller nodes and at least eight Compute nodes. i already have two physical servers. This decision impacts support for security groups and live migration. Networking services. in the simplest way possible with primarily layer-2 (bridging/switching) In addition to basic design considerations described in Chapter 3, Design, you should also follow the considerations described in Section 4.4.4, “Storage-Focused Architecture Considerations”. Controls hardware load balancers with plug-ins and the Networking API. Architecture Design Guide. Therefore, this architecture can be used in multiple OpenStack designs. [OpenStack-docs] Storage node missing in the example architecture? When providing network service for applications such as video streaming or storage replication, configure the OpenStack hardware nodes and the supporting network equipment for jumbo frames wherever possible. This service requires two nodes. Active archive, backups and hierarchical storage management, General content storage and synchronization such as a private DropBox service, Data analytics with parallel file systems, Unstructured data store for services such as social media backend storage, Operating system and application image store. After becoming familiar with basic installation, configuration, operation, A compute-focused OpenStack cloud is extremely demanding on processor and memory resources. High-speed or high-volume transactional systems. Each node requires a Use this service to monitor instance usage and invoke instance templates from the Orchestration service. High-Performance Database Architecture, 4.4.4. An example of this is StarlingX, as its architecture closely resembles the distributed model. Except where otherwise noted, this document is licensed under Stores images to be used for booting instances and managing snapshots. Overlay (tunnel) traffic for self-service networks traverses the management Expandability. In order to provide high performance or large amounts of storage space, you might need to attach the storage to each hypervisor or serve it from a central storage device. OpenStack's architecture is made up of numerous open source projects. The web application instances are stateless, so in case one of the instances fails, the application can continue to run. If instances must be highly available or capable of migration between hosts, use a shared storage file system for ephemeral instance data to ensure that compute services can run uninterrupted in the event of a node failure. In some compute-intensive workloads, minimizing the delays that the CPU experiences while fetching data from storage can significantly improve the overall performance of the application. The storage system uses a LUN backed with a set of SSDs in a traditional storage array, and uses OpenStack Block Storage integration or a storage platform such as Ceph. It is highly flexible and enables reduced cost of operations with features such as self-healing and auto-balancing. use cases, or how to determine which architecture is required, see the You can use this architecture type for existing storage environments. This deployment also requires configuration of supporting services, such as Identity and Image, in the child cells. The API cell directs API calls to compute cells using a customized variation of the cell scheduler. You can deploy more than one compute node. Manages templates for instances and block storage volume. Parallel file systems can provide high-performance data processing and are recommended for large scale performance-focused systems. Think of these as curated playlists of OpenStack configurations. When users download content, that content moves northbound out of the OpenStack environment. For simplicity, service traffic between compute nodes and this node The optional Block Storage node contains the disks that the Block Storage-Focused Architecture Considerations, 4.5.1. provide a minimum proof-of-concept for the purpose of learning about network instead of a dedicated network. A master node is not an OpenStack node. For example, building an application with a redundant micro-services architecture -we’ll see an example shortly- makes the application cloud native, since this architecture allows our application to be deployed in a distributed manner that allows it to be scalable and almost always available. self-service networks using overlay segmentation methods such This service manages the Virtual IP (VIP) addresses while a dual-homed connection from the HAproxy instance connects the public network with the tenant private network that hosts all content servers. This slideshare explains the architecture of OpenStack. Backups run every six hours. networks to physical networks and relies on physical network infrastructure This is a 40 minute video that covers the history of OpenStack, an overview of the project (including debunks), provides a technical overview of each of the component, and covers the project governance. Choose one of the following virtual networking options. Compute nodes use OpenStack Block Storage for instances that need persistent storage. Consider the self-service networks option below if you desire these features. The website generates large amounts of log data every day that need to be archived. The Compute service is installed on each of the Compute nodes. See all In this type of network design, you can add additional bandwidth as well as scale out to additional racks of gear. Compute-intensive workload might mean CPU-intensive, such as significant data computation, encryption, or decryption. 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